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Wildvögel und H5N1

Diskutiere Wildvögel und H5N1 im Vogelgrippe / Geflügelpest Forum im Bereich Allgemeine Foren; Wild birds and the epidemiology of avian influenza -------------------------------------------------- Although wild birds are the recognized source and reservoir for all subtypes of avian influenza viruses ...

  1. #51


    Wild birds and the epidemiology of avian influenza
    Although wild birds are the recognized source and reservoir for all
    subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIV), the complex interaction
    among these diverse host and virus populations has not received
    adequate attention. A general concept of AIV epidemiology in wild
    birds exists; however, the presence of highly pathogenic avian
    influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses in wild birds has reinforced the need
    for a much more detailed understanding of AIV natural history.
    Worldwide, the wild avian reservoirs for AIV are incompletely
    defined, even within well-studied groups such as the Anseriformes and
    Charadriiformes. This lack of clarity applies not only to avian host
    species, but also to the various subtypes of AIV present within these
    populations. Even with the extensive number of AIV isolations
    previously reported from wild birds, the reservoir species and global
    distribution for many of these AIV subtypes are not completely
    understood. To date, studies related to AIV epidemiology in wild
    birds primarily focused on the agent. To move forward, we need to
    apply this same level of scrutiny and detailed understanding to the
    natural host populations and the environments they utilize. Research
    to date clearly demonstrates that species and population structure
    are important in AIV maintenance, transmission, and possibly
    long-distance movement. Species-related differences related to
    general behavior, spatial and temporal distribution, habitat
    utilization, migration behavior, population age structure, and
    individual species susceptibility, all potentially influence a
    species' role in AIV epidemiology. The unprecedented mortality
    associated with HPAI H5N1 infection in wild birds provides a new
    window from which to view the potential for exchange of AIV between
    wild and domestic birds, and further demonstrates and expands the
    varied roles that wild birds may play in AIV epidemiology. These
    roles must be clearly defined if we are going understand the full
    implications of current HPAI H5N1 virus introduction into the wild
    bird populations and most importantly prevent the next one.

    [Reference: David E. Stallknecht, Justin D. Brown: Wild birds and the
    epidemiology of avian influenza. J Wildl Dis 2007 43: S15-S20. Abstract
    Full text PDF available at

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    Hallo Gänseerpel,

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  3. #52


    Predicting the global spread of H5N1 avian influenza
    December 7, 2006, 10.1073/pnas.0609227103

    A. Marm Kilpatrick*,, Aleksei A. Chmura*, David W. Gibbons, Robert C. Fleischer, Peter P. Marra¶, and Peter Daszak*

    *Consortium for Conservation Medicine, New York, NY 10001; Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL, United Kingdom; and National Museum of Natural History, and ¶Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20008

    Communicated by Hans R. Herren, Millennium Institute, Arlington, VA, October 19, 2006 (received for review April 26, 2006)

    The spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza into Asia, Europe, and Africa has resulted in enormous impacts on the poultry industry and presents an important threat to human health. The pathways by which the virus has and will spread between countries have been debated extensively, but have yet to be analyzed comprehensively and quantitatively. We integrated data on phylogenetic relationships of virus isolates, migratory bird movements, and trade in poultry and wild birds to determine the pathway for 52 individual introduction events into countries and predict future spread. We show that 9 of 21 of H5N1 introductions to countries in Asia were most likely through poultry, and 3 of 21 were most likely through migrating birds. In contrast, spread to most (20/23) countries in Europe was most likely through migratory birds. Spread in Africa was likely partly by poultry (2/8 introductions) and partly by migrating birds (3/. Our analyses predict that H5N1 is more likely to be introduced into the Western Hemisphere through infected poultry and into the mainland United States by subsequent movement of migrating birds from neighboring countries, rather than from eastern Siberia. These results highlight the potential synergism between trade and wild animal movement in the emergence and pandemic spread of pathogens and demonstrate the value of predictive models for disease control.

    emerging | introduced species | model | trade | zoonotic disease

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Wildvögel und H5N1

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