Wildvögel und H5N1

Diskutiere Wildvögel und H5N1 im Vogelgrippe / Geflügelpest Forum im Bereich Allgemeine Foren; Vogelgrippe-Virus derzeit nicht unter Wildvögeln verbreitet Bangkok. AP/baz. Das Vogelgrippe-Virus H5N1 tritt derzeit offenbar nur in...

  1. Eva53

    Eva53 Mitglied

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    Vogelgrippe-Virus derzeit nicht unter Wildvögeln verbreitet

    Bangkok. AP/baz. Das Vogelgrippe-Virus H5N1 tritt derzeit offenbar nur in Zuchtgeflügelstationen auf. 350'000 Wildvögel in Asien, Afrika, Europa und Amerika wurden zwischen 2005 und 2007 auf den Erreger getestet - mit negativem Ergebnis, wie die Ernährungs- und Landwirtschaftsorganisation der Vereinten Nationen (FAO) am Montag mitteilte.

    «Wir wissen jetzt, dass es keine Vogelart gibt, die das Virus dauerhaft in sich trägt», sagte Scott Newman, Naturschutz-Koordinator bei der FAO. Wissenschaftler hatten lange befürchtet, dass Zugvögel das Virus auf ihren Reisen von Europa nach Afrika und in den Nahen Osten schnell verbreiten könnten. Dies ist der Studie zufolge aber nicht eingetreten. Trotzdem sagten Experten, dass die Beobachtung von Wildvögeln seitens der Mitgliedstaaten ausgebaut werden müsse.


    200 Millionen Vögel seit 2003 getötet

    Bei den Tests der Vereinten Nationen wurden einzelne kranke und tote Vögel von insgesamt 90 verschiedenen Arten identifiziert, die das Virus in sich trugen. Deshalb müsse besonders dort, wo wilde Vögel und Zuchtvögel zusammenkämen, häufigere Prüfungen stattfinden, sagte Newman. Andere Experten empfahlen, die Kräfte weniger auf die Wildvögelbeobachtung als vielmehr darauf zu konzentrieren, das Virus in den Zuchtstationen einzudämmen.

    Dem H5N1-Virus fielen nach Angaben der Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) bislang weltweit 199 Menschen zum Opfer. 200 Millionen Vögel mussten seit 2003 getötet werden. Bisher haben sich in der Regel Menschen angesteckt, die Kontakt mit infizierten Tieren hatten. Es wird jedoch befürchtet, das Virus könnte zu einer Form mutieren, die auch von Menschen übertragen werden und eine globale Epidemie auslösen könnte.

    http://www.baz.ch/news/index.cfm?ObjectID=CB8C4C85-1422-0CEF-7025C8027AF1B5A0
     
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  3. gsgs

    gsgs Mitglied

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    > Wir wissen jetzt, dass es keine Vogelart gibt, die das Virus
    > dauerhaft in sich trägt,

    na, wie vermehrt es sich dann ?

    Vogel infiziert
    Vogel scheidet Virus aus ins Wasser oder Pflanzen/Futter
    Vogel stirbt
    Zeit vergeht
    Anderer Vogel frisst, infiziert sich

    da kann aber nicht zu viel Zeit vergehen, sonst waeren da weniger
    Mutationen in den Sequenzen.

    muessen die halt nach Antikoerpern suchen

    oder gibt es einen Zwischenwirt, Vogel-Parasiten ,Beutetiere ?

    jedenfalls das Virus ist Tatsache. Und es ist in Voegeln.
    Und es mutiert, keine Anzeichen fuer statische Verweildauer ueber lange
    Zeitraeume ohne Reproduktion.
     
  4. Gänseerpel

    Gänseerpel Foren-Guru

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    Influenza surveillance in wild birds in Eastern Europe, the
    Middle East, and Africa: preliminary results from an ongoing FAO-led survey
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    From mid-January to mid-May 2006, field campaigns were conducted in
    14 countries, including recently infected countries. In total, 5256
    samples were collected in large wetland areas where Eurasian and
    Afro-tropical waterbirds congregate. The overall prevalence of avian
    influenza viruses detected by RT-PCR was 3.3 percent, with no
    positivity for HPAI H5N1 virus. From the RT-PCR-positive samples, 5
    distinct virus isolates were obtained. Low pathogenic avian influenza
    (LPAI) viruses were detected and isolated in both Eurasian and
    Afro-tropical bird species, indicating that low pathogenic viruses
    were circulating in Africa during the northern winter. These findings
    reveal that LPAI virus persists in wild birds in subtropical
    environments and support the hypothesis that avian influenza viruses
    could be perpetuated in wild birds throughout the year, including in
    Palearctic waterbirds wintering in sub-Saharan Africa before their
    northward spring migration.

    [Reference: Nicolas Gaidet, Tim Dodman, Alexandre Caron, Gilles
    Balanca, Stephanie Desvaux, Flavie Goutard, Giovanni Cattoli, Vincent
    Martin, Astrid Tripodi, Francois Lamarque, Ward Hagemeijer, Francois
    Monicat: Influenza surveillance in wild birds in Eastern Europe, the
    Middle East, and Africa: preliminary results from an ongoing FAO-led
    survey. J Wildl Dis 2007 43: S22-S28. Abstract
    Full text PDF available at
    <http://www.jwildlifedis.org/cgi/reprint/43/3_Supplement/S22>]
     
  5. Gänseerpel

    Gänseerpel Foren-Guru

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    Date: Mon 27 Aug 2007
    Source: Journal of Wildlife Diseases 2007 43(3), supplement [edited]
    <http://www.jwildlifedis.org/content/vol43/3_Supplement/index.dtl>

    [1] Evolution of influenza A viruses in wild birds
    [2] Virology of avian influenza in relation to wild birds
    [3] Wild birds and the epidemiology of avian influenza
    [4] H5N1 avian influenza outbreak in wild birds in western China
    [5] Influenza surveillance in wild birds in Eastern Europe, the
    Middle East, and Africa: preliminary results from an ongoing FAO-led survey
    [6] Guidelines on wild bird surveillance for highly pathogenic avian
    influenza H5N1 virus
    [7] Diagnosing avian influenza in the framework of wildlife
    surveillance efforts and environmental samples.
    [8] Remote sensing, ecological variables, and wild bird migration
    related to outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza
    [9] Assessment of H5N1 HPA risk and the importance of wild birds
    [10] Highly pathogenic avian influenza in domestic poultry and wild
    birds: a risk analysis framework
    [11] Implications of wildlife trade on the movement of avian
    influenza and other infectious diseases
    [12] The OIE network of reference laboratories
    [13] Surveillance, prevention, and disease management of avian
    influenza in the European Union
    [14] Early warning, database, and information systems for avian
    influenza surveillance
     
  6. Gänseerpel

    Gänseerpel Foren-Guru

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    Guidelines on Wild Bird Surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian
    Influenza H5N1 Virus1
    Vittorio Guberti2 and Scott H. Newman3,4,5
    1 Presentation at the FAO and OIE International Scientific Conference on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds, Rome, 30 and
    31 May 2006
    2 Istituto Nazionale Fauna Selvatica, Via Ca’ Fornacetta, 9-40064 Ozzano E. (BO), Italy
    3 United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy
    4 Wildlife Conservation Society, Field Veterinary Program, 2300 Southern Blvd., Bronx, New York, 10460 USA
    5 Corresponding author (email: Scott.Newman@fao.org)
    ABSTRACT: The recent spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 from Southeast
    Asia into Europe and Africa emphasizes the need to better understand the mechanisms by which
    the disease is spread. Current wildlife surveillance has been limited to a combination of targeted
    sampling, opportunistic sampling, and recovery of dead wildlife. Recent interest in avian influenzas
    provides an opportunity to develop a global surveillance program for diseases in wild birds. This
    program should be based on specific principles with clearly defined aims, sound epidemiological
    sampling justifications, and sufficient technical skills and capabilities for appropriate field and
    laboratory activities. At present, although detection of H5N1 in healthy wild birds is sporadic,
    surveillance programs should be focused on: 1) determining the role wildlife plays in the
    epidemiology of HPAI H5N1 virus, and 2) guiding strategies to prevent disease exposure to
    humans and poultry. Surveillance should incorporate active and passive components using
    available natural history information such as intra- or interspecies mingling, population size,
    migratory patterns, and seasonal large-scale aggregations. Passive surveillance can include samples
    from bird banders/ringers, other wild bird research efforts, oil-spill response efforts, rehabilitation
    centers, zoological collections, beached-bird surveys, and mortality events. A valuable wildlife
    surveillance program based on ecological and epidemiological information will require large-scale
    collaboration among national governments and ministries, multilateral agencies, nongovernment
    organizations, academicians, veterinarians, virologists, ornithologists, and many others.
    Key words: Avian influenza, guidelines, HPAI, H5N1, surveillance, waterfowl, wild birds.
     
  7. Gänseerpel

    Gänseerpel Foren-Guru

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    DIAGNOSING AVIAN INFLUENZA IN THE FRAMEWORK OF WILDLIFE
    SURVEILLANCE EFFORTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES1
    G. Cattoli,2,3 and I. Capua2
    1 Presentation at the FAO and OIE International Scientific Conference on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds, Rome,
    30 and 31 May 2006
    2 OIE/FAO and National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease, Istituto Zooprofilattico
    Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell’Universita` 10—35020 Legnaro (Padova), Italy
    3 Corresponding author (email: gcattoli@izsvenezie.it)
    ABSTRACT: Prior to the ongoing Asian H5N1 epizootic, it was believed that highly pathogenic
    avian influenza (HPAI) was a disease of domesticated birds and that wild birds could act only as
    reservoirs for the low pathogenic form (LPAI) of these viruses. The unprecedented situation in
    Asia during 2004 and 2005 revealed spillover of HPAI H5N1 infection to nai¨ve populations of wild
    birds. To date the role wild birds may play in the ecology and epizootiology of HPAI H5N1 appears
    very different to that in other HPAI epizootics, and is far from being completely understood.
    Recent outbreaks in Russia and Central Asia, Europe, and Africa indicate transboundary spread of
    HPAI H5N1. Isolation of the virus from wild birds in Eurasia led to speculation that wild birds may
    play a role in introducing and possibly secondarily spreading the infection to disease-free areas.
    Several diagnostic methodologies are available to detect avian influenza infection. Generation of
    reliable data requires the most appropriate diagnostic approach specific to the aim of the
    surveillance program and ecology of the virus in both the target population and the environment.
    Harmonized diagnostic strategies for detection of HPAI H5N1 must be developed and followed
    worldwide in order to make results comparable and useful to the international scientific
    community. The OIE/FAO Reference Laboratory in Padova, Italy is involved in extensive
    surveillance of wild birds sampled in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. Using results of this
    program, we developed a set of diagnostic guidelines that could be a basis for a harmonized
    approach by diagnostic laboratories.
    Key words: Avian influenza, HPAI H5N1, laboratory diagnosis, wild birds.
     
  8. Gänseerpel

    Gänseerpel Foren-Guru

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    REMOTE SENSING, ECOLOGICAL VARIABLES, AND WILD BIRD
    MIGRATION RELATED TO OUTBREAKS OF HIGHLY PATHOGENIC
    H5N1 AVIAN INFLUENZA1
    Xiangming Xiao,2,6 Marius Gilbert,3 Jan Slingenbergh,4 Fumin Lei,5 and Stephen Boles2
    1 Presentation at the FAO and OIE International Scientific Conference on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds, FAO, Rome,
    30 and 31 May 2006
    2 Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, 39 College Road, Durham, New
    Hampshire 03824, USA
    3 Biological Control and Spatial Ecology, Universite´ Libre de Bruxelles CP160/12, Av FD Roosevelt 50, B1050, Brussels,
    Belgium
    4 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Viale delle Termi di Caracalla 00100, Rome, Italy
    5 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China
    6 Corresponding author (email: xiangming.xiao@unh.edu)
    ABSTRACT: Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 subtype have occurred
    in many countries across Asia, Europe, and Africa since 2003. Better understanding of the ecology
    and risk factors of HPAI is critical for surveillance, risk assessment, and public health policy. We
    introduce satellite remote sensing as one important tool, and highlight the potential of using
    satellite images to monitor dynamics of climate and landscapes that are related to wild bird
    migration and agriculture in the context of avian influenza transmission.
    Key words: Avian influenza, land surface temperature, MODIS images, paddy rice.
     
  9. Gänseerpel

    Gänseerpel Foren-Guru

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    ASSESSMENT OF H5N1 HPAI RISK AND THE IMPORTANCE OF
    WILD BIRDS1
    Dirk U. Pfeiffer2
    1 Presentation at the FAO and OIE International Scientific Conference on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds, Rome, 30 and
    31 May 2006
    2 Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, United Kingdom,
    (email: pfeiffer@rvc.ac.uk)
    ABSTRACT: The role of wild birds in the transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    H5N1 is still unclear. Risk-assessment techniques can be used to identify the most important
    epidemiological mechanisms potentially leading to transmission to domestic poultry and to
    synthesize existing knowledge as risk estimates with associated uncertainty. As an example,
    a qualitative risk assessment was conducted by the European Food Safety Authority at the request
    of the European Commission to determine the risk of introduction of the virus through migratory
    wild birds into the European Union. Further techniques that can be used to inform risk
    management include quantitative risk factor analyses as well as simulation modeling.
    Key words: Avian influenza, epidemiology, risk assessment, wild birds.
     
  10. Gänseerpel

    Gänseerpel Foren-Guru

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    HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA IN DOMESTIC POULTRY
    AND WILD BIRDS: A RISK ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK1
    Cristo´ bal Zepeda2
    1 Presentation at the FAO and OIE International Scientific Conference on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds, Rome,
    30 and 31 May 2006
    2 USDA-APHIS-VS Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, Animal Population Health Institute, Colorado State
    University, 2150 Center Avenue, Building B, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA (email: cristobal.zepeda@aphis.
    usda.gov)
    ABSTRACT: Animal disease surveillance implies the collection of information related to the
    occurrence of disease and the implementation of actions for prevention, control, and eradication.
    In the case of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1, surveillance in wild birds is
    an important component of a comprehensive surveillance program to generate information that
    should lead to specific actions. Few, if any, of these actions are or should be directed toward wild
    birds; the vast majority are applied to the domestic poultry sector. A comprehensive surveillance
    plan should address four key areas: early warning, prevention, detection, and emergency response.
    The paper addresses these components in light of HPAI. Risk analysis for HPAI is broadly outlined
    with particular emphasis on risk-management strategies, including compartmentalization based on
    the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) guidelines.
    Key words: Highly pathogenic avian influenza, risk analysis.
     
  11. Gänseerpel

    Gänseerpel Foren-Guru

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    Evolution of influenza A viruses in wild birds
    ----------------------------------------------
    Influenza virus surveillance studies in wild bird populations in the
    Americas, Europe, and Asia confirmed that wild aquatic birds are the
    reservoir for all known influenza A viruses. Phylogenetic analysis
    groups the influenza viruses in wild aquatic birds into 2 distinct
    superfamilies -- one in the Americas and one in Eurasia. The
    separation of viruses into American and Eurasian clades implies that
    transmission of HP [highly pathogenic] H5 into the Americas by wild
    birds is likely to be a rare event. The rapid evolution of the
    Eurasian H5N1 viruses makes them a continued threat to poultry and
    humans worldwide.

    [Reference: Robert G. Webster, Scott Krauss, Diane Hulse-Post,
    Katharine Sturm-Ramirez: Evolution of influenza A viruses in wild
    birds. J Wildl Dis 2007 43: S-S6. Abstract
    Full text PDF available at
    <http://www.jwildlifedis.org/cgi/reprint/43/3_Supplement/S1>]
     
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  13. Gänseerpel

    Gänseerpel Foren-Guru

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    Wild birds and the epidemiology of avian influenza
    --------------------------------------------------
    Although wild birds are the recognized source and reservoir for all
    subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIV), the complex interaction
    among these diverse host and virus populations has not received
    adequate attention. A general concept of AIV epidemiology in wild
    birds exists; however, the presence of highly pathogenic avian
    influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses in wild birds has reinforced the need
    for a much more detailed understanding of AIV natural history.
    Worldwide, the wild avian reservoirs for AIV are incompletely
    defined, even within well-studied groups such as the Anseriformes and
    Charadriiformes. This lack of clarity applies not only to avian host
    species, but also to the various subtypes of AIV present within these
    populations. Even with the extensive number of AIV isolations
    previously reported from wild birds, the reservoir species and global
    distribution for many of these AIV subtypes are not completely
    understood. To date, studies related to AIV epidemiology in wild
    birds primarily focused on the agent. To move forward, we need to
    apply this same level of scrutiny and detailed understanding to the
    natural host populations and the environments they utilize. Research
    to date clearly demonstrates that species and population structure
    are important in AIV maintenance, transmission, and possibly
    long-distance movement. Species-related differences related to
    general behavior, spatial and temporal distribution, habitat
    utilization, migration behavior, population age structure, and
    individual species susceptibility, all potentially influence a
    species' role in AIV epidemiology. The unprecedented mortality
    associated with HPAI H5N1 infection in wild birds provides a new
    window from which to view the potential for exchange of AIV between
    wild and domestic birds, and further demonstrates and expands the
    varied roles that wild birds may play in AIV epidemiology. These
    roles must be clearly defined if we are going understand the full
    implications of current HPAI H5N1 virus introduction into the wild
    bird populations and most importantly prevent the next one.

    [Reference: David E. Stallknecht, Justin D. Brown: Wild birds and the
    epidemiology of avian influenza. J Wildl Dis 2007 43: S15-S20. Abstract
    Full text PDF available at
    <http://www.jwildlifedis.org/cgi/reprint/43/3_Supplement/S15>]
     
  14. Gänseerpel

    Gänseerpel Foren-Guru

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    Predicting the global spread of H5N1 avian influenza
    December 7, 2006, 10.1073/pnas.0609227103

    A. Marm Kilpatrick*,, Aleksei A. Chmura*, David W. Gibbons, Robert C. Fleischer, Peter P. Marra¶, and Peter Daszak*

    *Consortium for Conservation Medicine, New York, NY 10001; Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL, United Kingdom; and National Museum of Natural History, and ¶Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20008

    Communicated by Hans R. Herren, Millennium Institute, Arlington, VA, October 19, 2006 (received for review April 26, 2006)


    The spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza into Asia, Europe, and Africa has resulted in enormous impacts on the poultry industry and presents an important threat to human health. The pathways by which the virus has and will spread between countries have been debated extensively, but have yet to be analyzed comprehensively and quantitatively. We integrated data on phylogenetic relationships of virus isolates, migratory bird movements, and trade in poultry and wild birds to determine the pathway for 52 individual introduction events into countries and predict future spread. We show that 9 of 21 of H5N1 introductions to countries in Asia were most likely through poultry, and 3 of 21 were most likely through migrating birds. In contrast, spread to most (20/23) countries in Europe was most likely through migratory birds. Spread in Africa was likely partly by poultry (2/8 introductions) and partly by migrating birds (3/8). Our analyses predict that H5N1 is more likely to be introduced into the Western Hemisphere through infected poultry and into the mainland United States by subsequent movement of migrating birds from neighboring countries, rather than from eastern Siberia. These results highlight the potential synergism between trade and wild animal movement in the emergence and pandemic spread of pathogens and demonstrate the value of predictive models for disease control.


    emerging | introduced species | model | trade | zoonotic disease

    http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/103/51/19368
     
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